TEACHING READING USING THREE-PHASE TECHNIQUE
Brown (2001) states that the language-teaching literature widely accepted ‘technique’ as a super ordinate term to refer to various activities that either teachers or learners perform in the classroom. He also adds that technique includes any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or tasks used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives. In other words, technique includes all exercises, tasks, and activities in the classroom.
The techniques of teaching reading used by the teachers are one factor that may determine the success of interaction. Richard and Rogers (1980:36) said that selecting techniques is very important in presenting the materials to attract the students’ attention: the teacher should be considering the student’s characteristics and the materials, which are going to be taught. Therefore, the teacher should be more creative in selecting technique because the better result is the advantage in teaching learning process.
Dealing with techniques, Brown (2001:315) subdivides the techniques into pre-reading, whilst-reading, and post-reading phase. The three phases aim to train the students to be efficient readers in the foreign language. Other aspects have to be considered as well though, such as the student’s interest and curiosity to read, but teachers often have no choice in the texts they have to teach. In that case, the activities to be designed must stimulate the student’s interest by challenging them, providing them with a chance to use their imagination and creativity, and encouraging them to use the language and information gained from the text.
This is also supported by William (1984) he states that the design of useful reading activities is one of teacher’s responsibilities in helping students develop their reading ability. And in designing reading activities, a three-phase procedure involving pre-reading, whilst-reading, and post-reading stages should be taken into consideration
According to Chastain, 1988 (in Ajideh, 2003), the purpose of pre-reading activities is to motivate the students to want to read the text and to prepare them to be able to read it. Ringler and Weber, 1984 (in Ajideh, 2003) call pre-reading activities as enabling activities, because they provide a reader with necessary background to organize activity and to comprehend the material.
During the pre-reading phase, as stated by Ringler and Weber, 1984 (in Ajideh, 2003), students can be encouraged to do a number things. The aims of the pre-reading phase are arousing the students’ interest in the topic or type of text, motivating students to read the text by providing a purpose for reading, and activating students’ existing background knowledge in relation to the topic and getting familiar with some language in the text.
Dealing with activating students’ background knowledge, Porter (2006) suggests some techniques. The first technique is brainstorming. In these sessions, teachers ask students to examine together the title of the selection they are about to read. The teacher lists on the board all the information that comes to mind as students read the title. These pieces of information are then used to further recall, and in the process considerable knowledge will be activated.
The second one is pre-questions. Hood et al (1996) state that the teacher asks the students some questions before they read the text is to stimulate what they know about the topic. Whenever teachers or students decided on questions to be answered by reading, they are activating prior knowledge. These questions tend to focus attention and provide for purposeful reading. This will help in guiding students as they complete their reading assignment.
The last one is using visual aids for pre-reading activities also effective to motivate students to learn and activate student’s schemata Porter (2006) states that visual aids can help students to retrieve appropriate knowledge. Pictures, miniatures, real things, photograph, and puppet can activate a student’s prior knowledge.
The second stage of teaching reading in classroom is whilst-reading phase. According to William (in Jansen, 2008:4), the whilst-reading phase or during reading activity draws the students on the text and involves them in the thinking process. These activities help the learners understand the writer’s purpose, the text structure, and the context.
Whilst-reading activities generally aim to encourage students to be active as they read. The emphasis is to guide the students in an interaction with the text which leads to facilitation of comprehension (Cahyono, 1997)
Some strategies that foster comprehension during reading include prompted note taking, structured overviews, study guides, questioning strategies, and underlining (Kelly and Farman, 1990:266)
Giving inserted question in whilst- reading phase also has many advantages. According to Cahyono (1997), questions asked during reading stage should gear the students to the comprehension of main ideas, supporting details and relevant information in the reading text.
However, task- based activities are backbone of teaching. Because the teacher’s success or failure depends on the way s/he plans, organize and controls the tasks. Methodologists concentrate more on the learning task that learners are involved. Task-types suggested by different writers are: taking part in discussion, following and giving instruction, group discussions, presenting arguments, and soon (Nuttal1982; Howwat1984; Nunan1991)
Post- reading activities are aimed at providing review and feedback after reading (Cahyono, 1997). According to Juan (2007), post reading activities can be as varied as the texts they follow, but ideally will tie up with the reading purpose, so that students check and discuss activities done while reading and make use of what they have read in meaningful way, for example, by discussing their a wide range of activities focusing either on the content of the text can be undertaken for example, debate, role-play, discussing characters, events, ideas and arguments, and linking the content with the reader knowledge/experience.
According to Jansen (2008:4), the post reading phase is a follow up of pre-reading phase and whilst reading phase. The activities in this stage encourage students to make use of needed information to express their opinion and form ideas.
Other activities presented in post-reading phase can be post questioning (Cahyono, 1997). When students answer questions based on what they have read, teachers might provide feedback, that is let the students know how well they have performed.